PROFILE ON GHANA
Ghana is located in West Africa bordered by the Gulf of Guinea to the South, Cote d’Ivoire to the West, Togo to the East, and Burkina Faso to the North. Formerly known as the Gold Coast, Ghana gained independence from Britain on March 6, 1957, becoming the first sub-Saharan nation to break the chains of colonialism, and became a republic on July 1, 1960. The country occupies an area of 238,533 sq km (92,098 sq miles), with a population of about 25.5 million. Ghana is multilingual where over 80 languages are spoken. Of these, English, which was inherited from the colonial era (Britain), is the official language and lingua franca. Of the languages indigenous to Ghana, Akan is the most widely spoken.
Other major languages spoken include, Akan, Ewe, Fante, Nzema and Ga. The main religions practiced are Christianity, African Traditional Religion (indigenous beliefs) and Islam,
LEADERS/HEADS OF STATE
The country’s past leaders since independence, are: Dr Kwame Nkrumah (1957-1966), Lieutenant-General Joseph Ankrah, (1966-1969), Lieutenant Brigadier Akwasi Afrifa, (1969-1970), Dr Abrefa Busia, (1969-1972), General Ignatius Kutu Acheampong, (1972-1978), Lieutenant-General Fredrick William Akuffo, (19778-1979), and Flight-Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings, (1979). The rest are Dr Hilla Liman, (1979-1981), Flight-Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings, (1981-2001), John Agyekum Kufuor, (2001-2009), Professor John Evans Atta Mills, (2009-2012)John Dramani Mahama, 2012-2016, and Ghana’s current leader is President Nana Akufo Addo
View of Mount Afadjato in Ghana from a distsnce
Ghana is in Africa, along the Gulf of Guinea, just a few degrees north of the equator between latitudes 4° and 12°N, and South Ghana contains evergreen and semi-deciduous forests consisting of trees such as mahogany, odum, wawa ebony and it also contains much of Ghana’s oil palms and mangroves with shea trees, baobabs and acacias found in the northern part of Ghana. The country encompasses plains, low hills, rivers, Lake Volta, the world’s largest artificial lake, Lake Bosomtwi, Dodi Island and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast. Ghana can be divided into different geographical eco-regions. These are as follows
A Forest Canopywalk in Ghana
Eco-regions of Ghana The coastline, mostly a low, sandy shore backed by plains and scrub and intersected by rivers and streams.
The northernpart of the country features high plains, south-west and south-central made up of a forested plateau region, consisting of the Ashanti uplands, the Kwahu Plateau and the hilly Akwapim-Togo ranges, found along Ghana’s eastern international border
The Volta Basin lakesoccupies most of south-central Ghana, and the country’s highest point is Mount Afadjato, which is 885 m (2,904 ft) and is found in the Akwapim-Togo ranges. The climate is tropical, and the eastern coastal belt is warm and comparatively dry, the south-west corner of Ghana is hot and humid, and the north of Ghana is hot and dry
Lake Volta extends through large portions of south-eastern Ghana and many tributary rivers such as the Oti and Afram rivers flow into it. The northern most part of Ghana is Pulmakong and the southernmost part of Ghana is Cape three points near Axim in the Western region.
Ghana’s population has increased from 18,912,079 in 2000 to 24,658,823 in 2010, representing a 30.4 per cent increase within the decade, according to the Ghana Statistical Service. The current sex ratio is 95 males per 100 females and the total number of females is 12,633,978, representing 51.2 per cent, while males account for 12,024,845, representing 48.8 per cent of the entire population.
Ashanti region had the highest population of about 4,780,380, representing 19.4 per cent, followed by Greater Accra region, with 4,010,054, representing 16.3 per cent, the Upper West Region had the lowest population of 702,110 with a growth rate of 1.9 per cent. The others are: Eastern, 2,633,154, representing 10.7 per cent, Northern, 2,479,461, representing 10.1 per cent, Western, 2,376,021, representing 9.6 per cent, Brong Ahafo, 2,310,983, representing 9.4 per cent; Central, 2, 201,863, representing 8.9, Volta, 2,118, 252, representing 8.6 per cent; and Upper East, 1,046,545, representing 4.2 per cent.